Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Ιστορικά γεγονότα, καταστάσεις. Αναδρομές και διευκρινίσεις.

Μέλη σε σύνδεση

Μέλη σε αυτή την Δ. Συζήτηση: Anemona, japetus, Opsimos και 31 επισκέπτες

 

Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Δημοσίευσηαπό Yochanan » Δεκέμβριος 13th, 2008, 2:28 pm

Grecheskaya Operatsiya

J. Otto Pohl, Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, ISBN 0313309213

p.p. 119-121

Ch.11 The Greeks

The last large extraterritorial nationality living on the Crimean peninsula and shores of the Black Sea after the deportation of the Crimean Tatars was the Soviet Greeks. Many of these Greeks had refused to accept Soviet citizenship and aoug1t to maintain their Greek culture in the face of increasing Russian chauvinism. The cultural and ethnic ties between these communities and Greece made them a suspect alien population In the view of the Stalin regime. In order to secure the strategic areas around the Black Sea, the NKVD deported the Soviet Greeks to special settlements In Siberia. the Urals. Kazakhstan, and Central Asia.

The Greeks were the first people to settle the shores of the Crimea and Black Sea coast of Georgia and southern Russia. Greek traders, merchants. farmers, and fishermen lived and prospered in the coastal cities of the Crimean peninsula and Black Sea from the 7th century B.C.E. until World War U. This small community survived under the Tatars, the Tsars, and early Bolsheviks. In the 18th century additional Greek colonists settled the Crimea at the invitation of Catherine II.’ During the 19th century many Pontic Greeks Left Asia Minor to settle the Crimea and Black Sea coasts of Georgia and southern Russia. These Greeks and their descendants formed the majority of the Crimean Greek and Black Sea communities by World War L They spoke an ancient Ionian dialect of Greek barely intelligible to modern Athenians after centuries of separation. From 1916 to 1924 almost 100,000 more Pontic Greeks fled persecution (torn the Turkish authorities to settle among their compatriots in Georgia. Russia, Ukraine, and the Crimea. In 1938 there were 20.653 ethnic Greeks living In the Crimea (18% of the peninsula’s population)? Between 27 June and 4 July 1944. Joseph Stalin and Lavrentry Beria forcibly dispersed the Crimean Greeks across the Urals. Siberia, Kazakhstan. and Uzbekistan. In less than a week, the Stalin regime permanently destroyed 11w centuries old Crimean Greek community. 11w Greeks exiled from the Crimea lost their rights as Soviet citizens, their ancestral homeland, and much of their culture as a direct result of the deportation. In addition to the Crimean Greeks, Stalin deported the large population of ethnic Greeks Living on the Black Sea littoral of Georgia and South Russia. In 1779, 30,000 Greek Immigrants founded the city of Mariupol under the reign of Catherine H.’ After the Russians captured the city of Odessa, the majority of the population was Greek- The 1926 Soviet census counted 213,800 Greeks in the USSR’ Despite being born In the Soviet Union, many of these Greeks had Greek passports as late as 1949. After the collapse of the Tsarist Russian Emp4re. the Creek government Issued these documents to as many ethnic Greeks as they could.’ The Black Sea Greeks suffered the same fate as their brethren (torn the Cr1mea. Few Soviet Greeks, like other ethnic minorities, benefited from the policy of renzstu.

In the Crimea, Black Sea littoral, and Ukraine die Soviet government supported Greek-language schools newspapers. journals, and theatres.’ The Crimean ASSR had five Greek village Soviets.’ Among the Greek-language newspapers published in the Soviet Union were Sprtxus in Novorossiyisk, Kommu, Ost in Batwn, and Kskkrnes kapras (Red Tobacco Grower) in Sukhumi. In Georgia alone, the number of Greek4anguage schools increased from 22 In 1924 to 140 In 1938.” In contrast only one Greek-language school existed in Ukraine In 1928” By 1935 this number, had grown to 21.12 In 1932, three Greek national rsxrns existed in the Stalin Oblast of Ukraine.” The Soviet government also established a Greek national raicm In Krwodar Kray.” This territory was Inhabited by Greeks who had emigrated to Russia during the 1870s and 1880s and their descendants. These Greeks made their living as tobacco farmers, and the official newspaper of the rub., was the Russian language Zasoissiskr Ilioorzd sire (For Socialist Tobacco Farming)” As the 1930s progressed, the Stalin dictatorship continued to display an increasingly virulent Russian chauvinism. This chauvinism manifested itself in the closure of Greek institutions. In 1937, the Soviet government eliminated the Greek national rulion in Krasnodary In 1938, the Stalin regime closed down the Greek-language Kommunist and began closing Greek schools. These discriminatory actions prompted many Soviet Greeks to emigrate to Greece. By 1999 the Soviet census showed 286,400 Greeks in the USSR. These Greeks lived under increasing government discrimination and persecution. The deportations of the Crimean and Black Sea Greeks during World War 11 represented the height of this persecution. The first deportation of Black Sea Greeks occurred in 1942. On 29 May 1942, Stalin issued GKO order GOXO 1828, which ordered the exile of socially dangerous elements, Germans, Romanians. Crimean Tatars. and Greek passport holders from the cities and population centres of Krasnodar Kray and Rostov Oblast The resolution allocated the NKVD two weeks to accomplish this task The NKVD deported 1,402 Greeks from these areas during this operation. The NKVD deported a large number of Greeks from Rotov Oblast. Krasnodar Kray, Georgia, Armenia. and Azerbaijan at this time. This was only the first of several waves of Greek exiles.

Soon after the deportation of the Crimean Tatars, the Soviet security organs began preparing to exile the Crimean Greeks. Armenians, and Bulgarians. ‘These nationalities all had cultural ties beyond the borders of the Soviet Union. The Stalin regime’s paranoia regarding foreign spies and diversionists contributed greatly to the decision to deport these nationalities. In the case of the Greeks, Soviet resentment over the Greek army’s intervention In Odessa and Sevastopol in 1919 intensified this paranola.2 On 29 May 1944, Beria informed Stalin that a large number of anti-Soviet elements remained in the Crimea. According to Beria, among these anti-Soviet elements were 14,300 Creeks, 12,075 Bulgarians, and 9,919 Armenians. Beria’s specific accusations against the Crimean Greeks were relatively mild compared to those made against the Cr1mean Armenians and Bulgarians. He accused the Crimean Armenians of engaging in espionage and diversionary activities against the Red Army, and the Crimean Bulgarians of handing over captured Red Army soldiers and partisans to the German military. In contrast Beria claimed that the “German authorities received assistance from the Greeks in trade, transportation of goods, etc.” This accusation, however, carried the same penalty for the Crimean Greeks as did the more serious charges against the Crimean Armenians and Bulgarians. Partisan leaders in the Crimea reported that the Greek population displayed passivity in face of the German occupation of the peninsula. They did not, however, report widespread collaboration between the German military and the Crimean Greeks. Despite these reports, Beria recommended to Stalin that the NKVD deport all Greeks, Armenians, and Bulgarians from the Crimea. Stalin endorsed Beria’s recommendation. Stalin personally issued the order to deport the Crimean Greeks.
Οπού 'τονε ξεχωριστός σε πλούτη κι αξιοσύνη
Με την καρδιά ντου ήθελε την Κρήτη Ρωμιοσύνη
Άβαταρ μέλους
Yochanan
Extreme poster
 
Δημοσ.: 22987
Εγγραφη: Ιούνιος 3rd, 2005, 6:01 pm
Το μέλος Yochanan, σύμφωνα με τους όρους χρήσης που αποδέχτηκε κατά την εγγραφή του, φέρει την αποκλειστική ευθύνη της παραπάνω δημοσίευσης, των απόψεων/θέσεων που εκφράζονται μέσω αυτής, καθώς και την επιλογή συνδέσμων που τυχόν συμπεριλαμβάνονται. Για άμεση επικοινωνία με τον διαχειριστή του phorum.gr στο email: admin(@)phorum.gr

Re: Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Δημοσίευσηαπό Yochanan » Δεκέμβριος 13th, 2008, 2:44 pm

J. Otto Pohl, Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, ISBN 0313309213

p.p. 122-127

In his capacity as the chairman of the GICO (State Dekiw Committee), Stalin eued resolution no. 5964 as on 2 June 1944.” This resolution ordered the deportation of the estimated 39,000 Greeks, Armenians, and Bulgarians from the Crimea to Gwyev Oblast in Kazakhstan (7,000) and to Sverdlovsk Oblast (10,000). Mok,tov Obbst (10,000), Kemerovo Oblast (6,000), and the Bashkir ASSR (6,000) in Rusai.,U On 24 June 1944 the GKO passed resolution 61000 as ordering the deportation of people in the Crimea with Greek, Turkish, or Iranian papers to Uthekistan This resolution applied to 3,531 people with Greek passports.

On 27 and 28 June 1944, the NKVD rounded up all the Crimean Greeks and loaded them art overcrowded and unhygienic trains bound for the east.’ On 4 July 1944. the NKVD reported sending 15,040 Crimean Greeks (this number does not include those with foreign passports) to exile in the areas specified in GKO resolution 5984 a.. Uthekhstan. and the Maii USSR. The Crimean Greek. lost their homes, their livestock, and moat of their moveable property during the deportation. The NKVD spread the Crimean Greeks across Siberia, the Urals, Kazakhstan, and Central Asia.
At the same time the NKVD exiled 8,100 Greeks without Soviet citizenship from Ro.tov and Krasnodar to the eastern regions of the Soviet Union.” The Stalin regime sent 3,565 of these Greeks to Krasnoyarsk Kray. During this operation, the NKVI) confiscated 687 rifles, 53 submachine guns and 60 revolvers The NKVD also deported 16.375 ethnic Greeks from Georgia. Azerbaijan, and Armenia during this time.” The Soviet regime exiled much of the Greek Diaspora around the Black Sea to th hoc of the USSR.

Exiles to special settlements played an Important role in the Soviet ealnamy. The Stalin regime concentrated the Crimean Greeks into the oil and paper industries. tnt Guryev Oblast Kazakhstaa they worked for the People’s Commissariat of Oil.” In Molotov and Sverdlovsk oblasts they worked (or the People’s Commissariat of Paper.” Neither of the Industries were traditional occupations for the Crimean Greeks.
Many Soviet Greeks serving In the Red Army received even harsher treatment than the civilians deported to special settlement& Like the Soviet Germans, the Soviet regime mobilized Greek soldiers in the Red Army into labour battalions. The conditions of these mobilized workers, however, did not significantly differ from the conditions of Gulag prisoners. Al the end of World War II 11w Soviet regime disbanded these work battalions and sent their members to join their ethnic compatriots in exile. In addition to these work colonies arid battalions, 2,610 Soviet Greeks were working as Gulag prisoners on 1 January 1942 (see Table 11,1) On 1 January 1946 they held 1,240 ethnic Greek prisoners. By 1 January 1951 there were 1,558 Soviet Greeks in Fits and 768 ITKs suffered substantial deprivations. They worked tong hours at heavy labour under unsafe conditions and received meagre rations. In the summer of 1949, the Stalin regime took new repressive measures against the Soviet Creeks. The Soviet government decided to deport many of the Greeks still living in Georgia, Armenia. A baqan0 and the Black Sea coast of Russia to Kazakhstan.” On 29 May 1949, the Soviet Council of Minorities passed resolution SM USSR no. 2214456 as authorizing the MVD to undertake this action. This resolution ordered the deportation of the Greeks, Turks, and Armenians from the Transcaucasian republics and the Black Sea coast. Initially this resolution specified
that this new contingent of Greek exiles would not be considered special settlers, but voluntary settlers. On 2 June 1949, however, the MVD issued order no. 00525, which classified all deported Greeks as special settlers. On 14 and 15 June 1949, the Soviet security organs removed mud of the Greek population from Georgia. Armenia, Azerbaijani, and the Black Sea Coast During these two days the MVD exiled a total of 57,680 Greeks, Armenians, and Turks from these areas.” Greeks comprised the overwhelming majority of these exiles Out of 56,142 special settlers counted In this contingent in 1953, 37,352 were Greeks, The MVD deported 6,121 Greeks from Abkhazia alone during this sweep. SNK issued resolution no. 727-269is on 21 February 1950.r fl resolution ordered the exile of Greek passport holders and former Greek citizens from Transcaucasian and the Black Sea coast. On 10 August 1950, the Council of Ministers Issued order no. l4I33ra, exiling the last remaining Greek passport holders. stateless Greeks, and former Greek citizens possessing Soviet citizenship from the Transcaucasian republics and Black Sea coast Between 1942 and 1950 the Soviet regime deported a total of 21,199 people with Greek passports to special settlements in the interior of the USSR.’° The Soviet government Issued sax separate decrees regarding the deportation of Greeks (see Table 112). The number of Greeks remaining In the Black Sea region of the USSR after the 1949 and 1950 deportations was considerably smaller than it had been in the years prior to World War II.

After the Greek Civil War, many of the defeated communists emigrated to the USSR. On 27 September 1949, the Council of Ministers passed resolution no. 4067-1674 as on “Political Emigrants from Greece.”” This resolution instnacted tIe MV!) to settle and find employment for the refugees. Between 10 and September 1949, 11,157 Greeks including 3,241 women and 21 children arrived ui the Georgian port of Poti from Albania.’1 Upon arriving In the USSR. the MVD transported these Greeks first to Krasnodar Kray and then to Uzbeklstan.” The MVD moved these immigrants In 14 settlements near Tashkent that had formerly been camps for POWs or Soviet prisoners” These Greek Immigrants worked in a variety of industrial enterprises and construction projects. Like the deported Soviet Greeks the Stalin regime viewed tie Greek immigrants as a labour source to industrialize undeveloped areas of the USSR.

The Crimean and Black Sea Greeks lived under the restrictions of the special settlement regime until after Stalin’s death. On January 1953 the MVD counted 14,760 Crimean Greeks as special settlers (see Table 113).They found 14,486 of these exiles in special settlements, they had arrested 241 and they were searching for the remaining 33 The largest concentration of these exiles was in Uzbekistan with 4,097 Crimean Greek special settlers Other large populations of Crimean Greek exiles lived In Sverdlovsk Oblast (3,414), Molotov Oblast (2,268), Bashkir AR (1,967) and Kemerovo Obbst (1,334). The MVD counted 37,352 Black Sea Greeks as special settlers on 1 January 1953. They found 37,188 of these exiles in special settlements, they had arrested 163, and they were searching for only one. The vast majority of the deported Black Sea Greeks (37,114, or 99.8%) resided m Kaz4khstan. On 7 March 1956. there were still 10,231 Crimean Greeks an special settlements” Almost the entire Crimean and Black Sea Greek populations remained scattered across the Urals, Siberia, Kazakhstan, and Central Asia lot nine years

Stalin’s death allowed the Soviet government to greatly ease Its repression of non-Russian nationalities. Between 1954 and 1957, the Soviet government dismantled the special settlement regime.” On 5 July 1954 the Council of Ministers released all children under 16 from special settlements” Exiled Greeks aged 16 and over remained confined to special settlements. In August 1955, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union formed a special commission consisting of Rudenko, Krugbv, Serov, and Gorshenin to release certain categories of special settle&’ This commission released the Creeks with Soviet citizenship deported from the Transcaucasian republics and Black Sea coast under SM resolution no. 2214-856ss of 29 May 1949,” Not until 27 Mardi 1956 did the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Issue a decree releasing the Crimean Greeks from special settlements” After almost 11 years of repression, the Soviet regime finally restored these deported Greeks their right, as Soviet citizen& The Soviet state released those Greeks without Soviet citizenship from special settlements on 25 September 1956 with MVD pnkaz no.0402.” This decree, however, did not allow the deported Greeks without Soviet citizenship to return to the areas from which they were exiled or receive compensation for property confiscated during the deportations” Non-citizen Greeks did not receive the right of freedom of residence until 1972. They received this right along with the Soviet Germans by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on 3 November 1972. They remained dispersed across the USSR. far from their traditional settlements on the Black Sea.

The exile to special settlements had a detrimental effect upon Greek culture in the USSR. The loss of Greek-language schools and publications accelerated the assimilation of the deported Greeks into Russian culture. Spread amongst Turkic and Russian populations many Greeks became linguistically Russified (see Table 11.4). Between 1926 and 1959, the number of Soviet Greeks who spoke Greek as a native language declined

Greek as their first language was a mere 38%. Assimilation and intermarriage steadily eroded the expression of Greek culture in the Soviet Union. Many of the depotied Greeks managed to make their way back to their Black Sea homes after Stalin’s death. These Greeks returned to their traditional areas of settlement in Georgia and other regions from which Stalin had deported them (see Table 11.5). 11 Soviet government, how ever, did not restore the Greek institutions existing in these areas prior to 1938 Only under Gorbachev did the expression of Greek culture in the Soviet Union receive official sanction. More than half of the Soviet Greek population lived in Georgia arid Ukraine by 1990. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union many ethnic Greeks living in the countries of the former Soviet Union have opted to emigrate. As early as 1990, 22,500 Greeks left the Soviet Union.’ A similar number of Greeks left the USSR in l99l. Moat of these emigrants have opted to
Οπού 'τονε ξεχωριστός σε πλούτη κι αξιοσύνη
Με την καρδιά ντου ήθελε την Κρήτη Ρωμιοσύνη
Άβαταρ μέλους
Yochanan
Extreme poster
 
Δημοσ.: 22987
Εγγραφη: Ιούνιος 3rd, 2005, 6:01 pm
Το μέλος Yochanan, σύμφωνα με τους όρους χρήσης που αποδέχτηκε κατά την εγγραφή του, φέρει την αποκλειστική ευθύνη της παραπάνω δημοσίευσης, των απόψεων/θέσεων που εκφράζονται μέσω αυτής, καθώς και την επιλογή συνδέσμων που τυχόν συμπεριλαμβάνονται. Για άμεση επικοινωνία με τον διαχειριστή του phorum.gr στο email: admin(@)phorum.gr

Re: Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Δημοσίευσηαπό Yochanan » Δεκέμβριος 13th, 2008, 2:51 pm

Εικόνα

Εικόνα

Εικόνα

Εικόνα
Οπού 'τονε ξεχωριστός σε πλούτη κι αξιοσύνη
Με την καρδιά ντου ήθελε την Κρήτη Ρωμιοσύνη
Άβαταρ μέλους
Yochanan
Extreme poster
 
Δημοσ.: 22987
Εγγραφη: Ιούνιος 3rd, 2005, 6:01 pm
Το μέλος Yochanan, σύμφωνα με τους όρους χρήσης που αποδέχτηκε κατά την εγγραφή του, φέρει την αποκλειστική ευθύνη της παραπάνω δημοσίευσης, των απόψεων/θέσεων που εκφράζονται μέσω αυτής, καθώς και την επιλογή συνδέσμων που τυχόν συμπεριλαμβάνονται. Για άμεση επικοινωνία με τον διαχειριστή του phorum.gr στο email: admin(@)phorum.gr

Re: Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Δημοσίευσηαπό Εγω » Δεκέμβριος 13th, 2008, 7:37 pm

Και λίγο παλιό καλό anti-communism για να μην ξεχνιόμαστε.
Άβαταρ μέλους
Εγω
Maniac poster
 
Δημοσ.: 16608
Εγγραφη: Απρίλιος 29th, 2007, 10:39 pm
Τοποθεσια: Kοιλάδα των Τεμπών
Το μέλος Εγω, σύμφωνα με τους όρους χρήσης που αποδέχτηκε κατά την εγγραφή του, φέρει την αποκλειστική ευθύνη της παραπάνω δημοσίευσης, των απόψεων/θέσεων που εκφράζονται μέσω αυτής, καθώς και την επιλογή συνδέσμων που τυχόν συμπεριλαμβάνονται. Για άμεση επικοινωνία με τον διαχειριστή του phorum.gr στο email: admin(@)phorum.gr

Re: Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Δημοσίευσηαπό Lugozzi » Δεκέμβριος 13th, 2008, 7:39 pm

Εικόνα
sometimes the old ways are the best
Άβαταρ μέλους
Lugozzi
Extreme poster
 
Δημοσ.: 28233
Εγγραφη: Μάιος 10th, 2008, 2:38 pm
Τοποθεσια: "Ανατολή"
Το μέλος Lugozzi, σύμφωνα με τους όρους χρήσης που αποδέχτηκε κατά την εγγραφή του, φέρει την αποκλειστική ευθύνη της παραπάνω δημοσίευσης, των απόψεων/θέσεων που εκφράζονται μέσω αυτής, καθώς και την επιλογή συνδέσμων που τυχόν συμπεριλαμβάνονται. Για άμεση επικοινωνία με τον διαχειριστή του phorum.gr στο email: admin(@)phorum.gr

Re: Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Δημοσίευσηαπό Lugozzi » Δεκέμβριος 13th, 2008, 7:39 pm

Εικόνα
sometimes the old ways are the best
Άβαταρ μέλους
Lugozzi
Extreme poster
 
Δημοσ.: 28233
Εγγραφη: Μάιος 10th, 2008, 2:38 pm
Τοποθεσια: "Ανατολή"
Το μέλος Lugozzi, σύμφωνα με τους όρους χρήσης που αποδέχτηκε κατά την εγγραφή του, φέρει την αποκλειστική ευθύνη της παραπάνω δημοσίευσης, των απόψεων/θέσεων που εκφράζονται μέσω αυτής, καθώς και την επιλογή συνδέσμων που τυχόν συμπεριλαμβάνονται. Για άμεση επικοινωνία με τον διαχειριστή του phorum.gr στο email: admin(@)phorum.gr

Re: Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Δημοσίευσηαπό Yochanan » Δεκέμβριος 13th, 2008, 10:31 pm

Εγω έγραψε:Και λίγο παλιό καλό anti-communism για να μην ξεχνιόμαστε.


Έτσι, έτσι. Σε λίγο να δεις που θα αρχίσουν τα ψέμματα οτι δεν ήταν αντιδραστικοί καπιταλιστές οχτροί του λαου. Μπορεί να μας πουν κιόλας ότι δεν τους άξιζε
Οπού 'τονε ξεχωριστός σε πλούτη κι αξιοσύνη
Με την καρδιά ντου ήθελε την Κρήτη Ρωμιοσύνη
Άβαταρ μέλους
Yochanan
Extreme poster
 
Δημοσ.: 22987
Εγγραφη: Ιούνιος 3rd, 2005, 6:01 pm
Το μέλος Yochanan, σύμφωνα με τους όρους χρήσης που αποδέχτηκε κατά την εγγραφή του, φέρει την αποκλειστική ευθύνη της παραπάνω δημοσίευσης, των απόψεων/θέσεων που εκφράζονται μέσω αυτής, καθώς και την επιλογή συνδέσμων που τυχόν συμπεριλαμβάνονται. Για άμεση επικοινωνία με τον διαχειριστή του phorum.gr στο email: admin(@)phorum.gr

Re: Grecheskaya Operatsiya

Δημοσίευσηαπό Rudolf Hess » Δεκέμβριος 15th, 2008, 9:57 am

Είναι το βιβλίο του Τζούχα στα αγγλικά αν δεν κάνω λάθος;
Άβαταρ μέλους
Rudolf Hess
Maniac poster
 
Δημοσ.: 15953
Εγγραφη: Αύγουστος 6th, 2004, 10:18 pm
Τοποθεσια: Ηλύσια πεδία
Το μέλος Rudolf Hess, σύμφωνα με τους όρους χρήσης που αποδέχτηκε κατά την εγγραφή του, φέρει την αποκλειστική ευθύνη της παραπάνω δημοσίευσης, των απόψεων/θέσεων που εκφράζονται μέσω αυτής, καθώς και την επιλογή συνδέσμων που τυχόν συμπεριλαμβάνονται. Για άμεση επικοινωνία με τον διαχειριστή του phorum.gr στο email: admin(@)phorum.gr


Επιστροφή στην Ιστορία

Μετάβαση στην αρχή της σελίδας

Μέλη σε σύνδεση

Μέλη σε αυτή την Δ. Συζήτηση: Anemona, japetus, Opsimos και 31 επισκέπτες